Performing test automation requires great skill and diversified experience. It has been observed that even the most experienced companies fail to achieve their goals and face issues like scalability and maintainability, soon after the implementation.
As a result of this, most companies fail to keep up with the volume required for modern development approaches such as Agile and DevOps.
The Need for Test Automation
Test automation is highly demanded for its speed of conducting tests. In fact, test automation offers both business and IT benefits, which include decreased time to market, increased test coverage and accuracy, decrease cost per hour, find bugs sooner, and more. With increasing codebase and added functionality, manual testing is turning laborious, inefficient and costly by the day. To avoid facing such issues, manual testers are rapidly switching to test automation.
However, you need to use the best and appropriate tools for different testing scenarios. Judging and selecting the most apt tools is a very important step where most organizations fail. They should understand the usages of the tool first and then decide whether to invest in them. If they are unsure of which tool to use, they should get help from reliable testing agents.
Some of the top trending automation tools include:
More often than not, an organization find tools that have limited capacities. In such cases, solutions that have multi-tool options should be engaged.
Benefits of Automation Testing
Some of the important benefits of automation testing are:
- It saves time and money: Automation testing is significantly faster than manual testing.
- Repeatable: The test can be repeated to check how the software or the website reacts.
- Reusable: Tests can be re-used on various versions of the software.
- It increases the effectiveness, efficiency, and test coverage of your software and application
- Achieves consistent & accurate results: It is highly reliable since the same operations turn up the same result each time it is run, thus eliminating human error.
- Programmable: Testers can innovate sophisticated tests that bring out hidden information.
- It minimizes manual interventions
- It reduces time of development due to increased testing speed.
- It runs test scripts anytime without any labor expenses.
- Comprehensive: Testers can build test suites that cover every feature in the software application.
- It can be executed on multiple computers with different configuration
Testing types that can be automated
The following testing types can be automated:
- Functional Testing
- Regression Testing
- Integration Testing
- User Interface Testing
- Unit Testing
- Data Driven Testing
- Black Box Testing
- Smoke Testing
Automation Testing and Feasibility
Automation Testing, if introduced, may increase cost in terms of time, money, and effort. Therefore, it is always best to start with a feasibility study. Some of the things that the feasibility study considers are application functionality, application maturity, and stability.
Although the benefits of test automation have widely been accepted, the high failure rates have also been acknowledged. It has been found that over 60% of the test automation projects have failed. This holds investors back from choosing this technology.
More info at Website QualiTest Group
Internet Protocol and it’s Two Versions: IPv4 and IPv6
What is Internet Protocol (IP)?
Internet Protocol is the full form of IP.
IP is about the technical format of how data packets are processed and how Network communication is executed with the help of addressing scheme of computers.
Almost every network combines IP with the higher level protocol which is also known as Transmission Control Protocol to prepare Virtual connection between the destination and the source.
To describe as an example, IP is like the postal system in which the package(datagram) is sent to be addressed(encapsulation) and further it is sent to the system(internet) through the sender. But there is no direct link between the sender and the receiver.
The datagram gets divided into various parts, where each and every part has an address of the receiver. With the time each and every part gets delivered to the receiver but through different routes and in different time frames. The Internet Protocol decides the routes and time.
What are Internet Protocol versions?
In the present scenario, there are two different versions of Internet Protocol and they are IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade in the Internet Protocol technology. In the present scenario where IPv6 is in huge demand, here both the versions IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist together for some time.
What is IPv4?
The full form of IPv4 is Internet Protocol version 4, this is the fourth revision of Internet Protocol which has it’s application in identifying the device in the network through the addressing system.
Internet Protocol is designed in such a way that it can be used in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communication networks.
IPv4 is used the most when it comes to a connection of Internet in devices through Internet Protocol.
A 32-bit address scheme is used in IPv4, which allows 2^32 addresses in a total of 4 billion addresses.
As the usage of the Internet is exponentially increasing, it is being assumed that slowly IPv4 addresses will be totally finished. As it is still being used in every device like computers, smartphones and game consoles and all these devices require Address to connect with the Internet.
What is IPV6?
To cover up the downfalls of IPv4 a new Internet addressing system was brought up which is known by the name of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) and this can prove to be helpful in covering up the shortfalls of Internet addresses.
IPv6 is also known as IPng, whose expansion is Internet Protocol next generation and this is the newest version of Internet Protocol.
IETF standards committees have worked upon verifying this version so that it can totally replace Internet Protocol Version 4.
IPv6 is considered as the successor of IPv4. It has been prepared especially as the upgraded version of the current Internet Protocol so that it can coexist with IPv4 for some time.
IPv6 is designed in such a way that it can help the internet to grow steadily, keep the number of hosts connected and help data traffic transmission to a full extent.
IPv6 is also known as the next generation Internet standard and it had been under development since mid-1990.
The intention behind the development of IPv6 was to fulfill the increasing demand of IP address so that IP addresses don’t cease completely.
The Benefits of IPv6
IPv6 will be of great help to increase the pool of addresses along with it there are various major technological changes which will bring ease in the functioning of Internet Protocol.
Let us look at a list of them:
1)No need for Network Address Translation or NAT.
3)There will be no further Private address collisions.
4)Better multicast routing will be available.
5)Simpler header format
6)Simplified and more efficient routing will be available.
7) The true quality of service (QoS) or flow labeling.
8)Built-in authentication and privacy support.
9)Flexible options and extensions
10)Easier administration. No further need for DHCP.
Working of IPv4 and IPv6:
IPv4 uses 32 bits long address while IPv6 uses 128 bits long address and along with it, IPv6 is separated by 816-bit hexadecimal blocks and colons are used for division.
For the purpose of multicasting, IPv4 uses class type address while IPv6 uses integrated address space to multicast.
IPv4 uses broadcast addresses so that each device can be forced to stop and it can view the packets. Whereas IPv6 uses multicast groups for the same.
IPv4 uses 0.0.0.0 to view the unspecified address and for the loopback of class type address (127.0.0.1). Whereas IPv6 uses:: and:: 1 for unspecified and loopback address.
For traffic and private addresses, IPv4 uses globally unique public addresses. While IPv6 uses globally unique unicast addresses and local addresses (FD00::/8).
Difference between IPv4 and IPv6:
IPv4 requires 576 bytes packet size.
IPv6 requires 1280 bytes packet size.
IPv4: Routers and sending hosts.
IPv6: Sending hosts only.
IPv4: It is not fully secured because IPv4 was not meant on the vision of security. It was originally designed for the isolated military network after that it was adapted for public education and research network.
IPv6: IPv6 was made with strong security from the beginning. The facility for Encryption Authentication was also provided in it.
Header and fields:
Ipv4 header has 20 bytes in it and has a total of 13 fields in it.
IPv4 header has 40 bytes in it and has a total of 8 fields.
IPv4 has non equal geographical distribution.
IPv6 has no geographical limitations.
The Impacts of Technology on Education
Everything in this world has two sides. One is positive and the other is obviously negative. You can also name it the dark and bright side. Well, if you are talking about technology, it has revolutionized the world and has changed the way of thinking.
If you look back at the history, Teachers used chalks and blackboards but now they use markers and whiteboards. The teachers gave student homework written on diaries. Now assignments are mailed on emails of the students. The student had to visit libraries to read some extra material but now the whole libraries are in their hands in the form of smartphones. They can access e-libraries to study online books.
Let’s discuss the positive and negative impacts of the technology on the life of a student.
Technology has the vital importance in our lives now a day. It is one of the crucial needs in every field of life. Also, it has a great impact on our education system and the field of education. Every kind of person is being affected by technology. Either he/she is a student or teacher or any person in the educational field. Technology has some positive as well as some negative impacts on the education field. These impacts are briefly discussed. Technology is not the only impact on education it has also a positive and negative impact on society.
Positive Impacts of Technology on Education:
Here are the main positive impacts of technology on education:
Technology is providing great help in form of remote or distant education. In many countries, it is the trend now to study remotely. The people from far off areas can study in great institute through distance education and can also learn skills using this facility. There are many universities and institutes which provide distance education. Like in Pakistan we can take the examples of Virtual University and Alama Iqbal Open University. It is very beneficial for students.
Web-Based Meeting and Seminars:
Now it’s the era of web conference and web seminars. Students who can’t join a class or seminar physically can attend these seminars online. Now technology made it really very easy to be the part of an educational field with grace and ease.
So now you can attend any kind of seminar, meetings and educational discussions by using technology simply.
In old times the libraries and encyclopedias were considered the only asset for the sake of research. People had to do the tough tasks like research using books, newspapers and other written materials. But now they can research easily because the ease is at the distance of one click. So this is how Internet Impact on society as well as changing our way of learning. Now every kind of material is available online. This material, facts, and figures can help you greatly in your research work.
Educational and Mind Games:
There are many educational and mind games are present online. Technology provided many positive games for students that may help them to increase their level of thinking, the ability of perception and intelligence level. These IQ games help a lot to make them feel and think form different aspects.
Negative Impacts of Technology on Education:
Technology also has so many negative and drastic impacts on the educational field and students as well.
Likewise, to the number of hindrances of data innovation in instruction, for example, schoolchildren and understudies access to data that would have been more valuable to instructors than understudies can be ascribed. In this manner, students with access to the Web and an adequate measure of available time, learn innovation news, writing, and present-day advancements, and so forth first, considerably sooner than educators who invest the majority of their energy at work and not ready to prop track of everything up on the planet. The young generation mostly spends their time on social networks who have always access to the web this is how social media impact on society.
Technology changes the way of thinking:
Too much use of technology, computer, and internet, this change the way of thinking of children. As it makes them an adult before their age. As every kind of content is available on the internet and the web. They think about that points, topics, and aspects that should not be thought by child and students. It is really harmful to their mental level ethically.
Technology changes the ways a child feels:
Today technology is very harmful to the little growing minds like children. It is a necessary evil. It means it is crucial for us for many purposes in education as well as it is dangerous as it contains every kind of data on websites. This kind of content should not be exposed to little minds and students. They feel free to search and involve in these kinds of activities that are destroying their innocence and future.
Abuse of innovation can likewise influence a kid’s own state of mind. A report from the Unified Kingdom uncovered that children who utilize PC diversions and their home Web for over four hours don’t have indistinguishable feeling of prosperity from the individuals who utilized that innovation for not as much as 60 minutes. One master clarified that with less physical contact, youngsters may experience issues creating social abilities and passionate responses.
Our security and Privacy is at risk:
Using technology our all kind of information is online at risk. We are not secure ethically, physically and morally. It is destroying our education system as well as our privacy and security. We should limit the excessive use of technology to save us and our children from its negative effects. It should be used only for educational purposes and for the well being of mankind.
Technology changes learning priorities:
The use of technology is changing our learning priorities. Now children are not getting satisfied with the knowledge they are being taught in schools. The try to cross the boundaries of knowledge as they have everything in their hands. And that’s the point where they astray from the right path of learning. They can’t sum up what they are doing and what they actually need to do? Their learning priorities are being changed as they are forgetting their right lessons and getting lost in excessive technology. They are going beyond their boundaries, that are leading them to the failure.
Technology is a necessary evil. As it has both positive as well as negative impacts on education and our lives. We just need to find the right path. We just need to use technology at its optimum within its limits; otherwise, we have to bear its distraction.
Honda to introduce 3E robotics concept at CES 2018
At the beginning of this year, Honda fulfilled its promise to introduce a completely new line of artificial intelligence-equipped robots that have the ability to interact with humans on a more personal and emotional level. The series is called 3E and initially, 4 different robots were introduced. The development of these machines is open to everyone who desires to contribute to the technology or hardware manufacturing. In fact, Honda invited other robot manufacturers to help and assist in creating something better and more efficient for users.
The name of the series 3E shows that Honda created these robots by keeping the 3 core values in mind including; Empower, Experience and Empathy. This series successfully shows how Honda wants to develop this technology of robots to interact with people on the more personal level and because these robots will be equipped with AI, they will have the ability to observe and learn from human behavior and use that knowledge to show empathy and emotions to the consumers. Although the technology is revealed for viewers at the beginning of 2018, it’s yet to be confirmed by the manufacturer about when these robots will actually be available for purchase in the markets.
Some of the top 3E robots from Honda at CES 2018:
This is the first artificial intelligence based robot that was introduced by Honda. The key focus of this robot is to make the connection between machines and humans better than ever before. Being overruled by the AI in the robots is a common fear among people who think there will be one day in near future when the robots will become self aware and will destroy mankind. With that thought in mind, Honda built A18 which interacts with humans on deeper level and it has the ability to observe human behavior and mood and respond to that. The design of this robot is kind of cute and the exterior is very soft and smooth. Honda assumes that this robot will be widely used in public sector i.e. hotel receptions and shopping malls to assist people in near future.
This is yet another astonishing invention from Honda. This is the second robot in the 3E series and when you look at the design of this robot, it seems like a box with wheels but it can actually interact with people. This robot also has the ability to learn from people and observe their behavior and interact with them with the help of AI. From a moveable cart in the street to a versatile work desk, this robot has a lot of features to offer to the users. On top of all these features, it also has a face that can show various emotions while talking to humans.
This is the third robot in the 3E series and it is designed to help and assist people with disabilities. The basic purpose of this robot is to help elders and disabled people to move around. It has the perfect ability to operate both inside and outside of the house. The seat on this robot is very comfortable and because of the small size, it is very easy to maneuver this robot in small and crowded spaces. This is also equipped with artificial intelligence so it keeps learning from the humans that interact with it. Additionally, this robot has the feature to keep the seat upright position on curves and while climbing a ramp. A user interface is very easy and simple yet elegant enough to think of it as an advanced machine.
This model from Honda is very similar to robots that we keep seeing for military purposes. There are multiple manufacturers that built robotic vehicles to assist soldiers, armed forces and emergency response teams when it’s not safe or ideal for a human to work in a difficult situation. For instance, this robot can go in a building under fire and it can locate and carry humans safely out of the building. This same robot can be used to lift heavy objects on its flat surface thus serving as a movable small vehicle that can perform difficult objectives in narrow or dark places. With the help of GPS and onboard camera, this robot has a completely different approach on how humans are going to use robot vehicles for their convenience in future.
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