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Internet Protocol and it’s Two Versions: IPv4 and IPv6



IPv4 and IPv6

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Internet Protocol is the full form of IP.
IP is about the technical format of how data packets are processed and how Network communication is executed with the help of addressing scheme of computers.

Almost every network combines IP with the higher level protocol which is also known as Transmission Control Protocol to prepare Virtual connection between the destination and the source.

To describe as an example, IP is like the postal system in which the package(datagram) is sent to be addressed(encapsulation) and further it is sent to the system(internet) through the sender. But there is no direct link between the sender and the receiver.

The datagram gets divided into various parts, where each and every part has an address of the receiver. With the time each and every part gets delivered to the receiver but through different routes and in different time frames. The Internet Protocol decides the routes and time.

What are Internet Protocol versions?

In the present scenario, there are two different versions of Internet Protocol and they are IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade in the Internet Protocol technology. In the present scenario where IPv6 is in huge demand, here both the versions IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist together for some time.

What is IPv4?

The full form of IPv4 is Internet Protocol version 4, this is the fourth revision of Internet Protocol which has it’s application in identifying the device in the network through the addressing system.

Internet Protocol is designed in such a way that it can be used in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communication networks.

IPv4 is used the most when it comes to a connection of Internet in devices through Internet Protocol.

A 32-bit address scheme is used in IPv4, which allows 2^32 addresses in a total of 4 billion addresses.

As the usage of the Internet is exponentially increasing, it is being assumed that slowly IPv4 addresses will be totally finished. As it is still being used in every device like computers, smartphones and game consoles and all these devices require Address to connect with the Internet.

What is IPV6?

To cover up the downfalls of IPv4 a new Internet addressing system was brought up which is known by the name of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) and this can prove to be helpful in covering up the shortfalls of Internet addresses.

IPv6 is also known as IPng, whose expansion is Internet Protocol next generation and this is the newest version of Internet Protocol.
IETF standards committees have worked upon verifying this version so that it can totally replace Internet Protocol Version 4.

IPv6 is considered as the successor of IPv4. It has been prepared especially as the upgraded version of the current Internet Protocol so that it can coexist with IPv4 for some time.

IPv6 is designed in such a way that it can help the internet to grow steadily, keep the number of hosts connected and help data traffic transmission to a full extent.

IPv6 is also known as the next generation Internet standard and it had been under development since mid-1990.
The intention behind the development of IPv6 was to fulfill the increasing demand of IP address so that IP addresses don’t cease completely.

The Benefits of IPv6

IPv6 will be of great help to increase the pool of addresses along with it there are various major technological changes which will bring ease in the functioning of Internet Protocol.

Let us look at a list of them:

1)No need for Network Address Translation or NAT.


3)There will be no further Private address collisions.

4)Better multicast routing will be available. 

5)Simpler header format

6)Simplified and more efficient routing will be available.

7) The true quality of service (QoS) or flow labeling.

8)Built-in authentication and privacy support.

9)Flexible options and extensions

10)Easier administration. No further need for DHCP.

Working of IPv4 and IPv6:

IPv4 uses 32 bits long address while IPv6 uses 128 bits long address and along with it, IPv6 is separated by 816-bit hexadecimal blocks and colons are used for division.

For the purpose of multicasting, IPv4 uses class type address while IPv6 uses integrated address space to multicast.

IPv4 uses broadcast addresses so that each device can be forced to stop and it can view the packets. Whereas IPv6 uses multicast groups for the same.

IPv4 uses to view the unspecified address and for the loopback of class type address  ( Whereas IPv6 uses:: and:: 1 for unspecified and loopback address.

For traffic and private addresses, IPv4 uses globally unique public addresses. While IPv6 uses globally unique unicast addresses and local addresses (FD00::/8).

Difference between IPv4 and IPv6:

Packet Size:
IPv4 requires 576 bytes packet size.
IPv6 requires 1280 bytes packet size.

Packet fragmentation:
IPv4: Routers and sending hosts.
IPv6: Sending hosts only.

IPv4: It is not fully secured because IPv4 was not meant on the vision of security. It was originally designed for the isolated military network after that it was adapted for public education and research network.

IPv6: IPv6 was made with strong security from the beginning. The facility for Encryption Authentication was also provided in it.

Header and fields:
Ipv4 header has 20 bytes in it and has a total of 13 fields in it.
IPv4 header has 40 bytes in it and has a total of 8 fields.

Geographical distribution:
IPv4 has non equal geographical distribution.
IPv6 has no geographical limitations.

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Best VPNs for Torrenting




best vpn for torrenting

VPNs are used by torrenters to keep their online activity private and to keep their uploads and downloads hidden. There are lots of VPNs available but all of them are not suitable for torrenting. Some of them may work too slow, some may not provide enough safety from the leak and some may not except torrenting at all.

Before choosing which VPN will be suitable for you, there are various criteria that must be considered.

It is compulsory for one to have a VPN kill switch and DNS leak protection if the concern is to confirm that no identifying data will leave the device.

There are some VPNs that have bandwidth limits. Bandwidth limits have the tendency to put limitations upon downloads. So, VPNs with bandwidth limits are to be avoided as lots of data are required in torrenting.

The VPNs that are to be used for torrenting should have a quality speed.

How does VPN keep your privacy secured:

The very first thing a good VPN will take care of is that it avoids anyone who is on your ISP network from knowing that you are on torrent. When the files you upload or download via BitTorrent passes through the server of the ISP, the VPN will make sure that the contents cannot be identified as all of them are encrypted.

Also, another task of VPN is to make sure that other users cannot download the same files as ours by finding out our IP address.

Your location and the ISP can easily be found out using your IP address if you do not have a VPN.

We have figured out the top five VPNs which completely passes all the tests to be recognized as the perfect VPN for torrenting.

Let us know them and find out the advantages and disadvantages of using them.

1) Express VPN:

Express VPN is one of the best VPNs available for torrenting. Any torrenter can choose this VPN without any doubt in mind. This VPN has perfect forward secrecy across 94 different countries and with encryption of 256-bit AES it provides a very fast downloading speed.

 Express VPN is from the Virgin Islands. Since the British Virgin Islands have no laws on retention of data, therefore traffic logs are not kept by this VPN.

To make sure that traffic doesn’t leak onto the unencrypted network, a kill switch is built.

Advantages of ExpressVPN:

▪ Its 256-bit encryption guarantees complete security.
▪No logs are kept by this VPN and remain completely anonymous.
▪It is capable of unblocking streaming services like iPlayer and Netflix.
▪It has a very high downloading speed.

Disadvantages of ExpressVPN:

▪ It will cost a little higher than other VPN services.
▪ The configuration options might be limited for advanced users.

2) Nord VPN:

Nord VPN has also been considered as one of the most trustworthy VPNs available. The best part about this VPN is that it doesn’t keep traffic logs as well as connection logs. It’s 256 bit AES encryption is capable of providing perfect forward secrecy. It also has Tor over a feature and double hop encryption.

Nord VPN doesn’t have any limits upon its bandwidth.
The fact that it uses shared IP addresses makes it almost impossible for anyone to trace out your IP address.

Advantages of NordVPN:

▪NordVPN can hold up to 6 connections.
▪It is completely anonymous as it keeps no logs.
▪Its servers are specifically optimized according to BitTorrent.
▪Killswitch which is specific to process.

Disadvantages of NordVPN:

▪ The use of the application is quite hindering.
▪It has many servers which aren’t fully reliable.

3) IPVanish:

IPVANISH is one of the most popular VPNs all over the world. This VPN is built specifically for torrenting and privacy has been given a major concern while developing it.
The main advantage of using this VPN is that it creates no logs.
Since shared IP addresses are used, it becomes very difficult to find out the users IP address for anyone.

IPVANISH is known for its speed and also it has no limits in its bandwidth, it becomes a plus point for the users.
This VPN also allows a killing switch in its settings.

Advantages of IPVANISH:

▪IPVANISH uses a network which is specially prepared for torrenting.
▪It stores absolutely zero logs.
▪It can be used comfortably with Kodi and Amazon fire stick.

Disadvantages of IPVANISH:

▪It is not capable of unboxing Netflix or Hulu.
▪It’s price is high as compared to others.

4) CyberGhost:

CyberGhost is a VPN which is based in Romania. Except for USA or Russia, P2P file sharing is supported by CyberGhost on any server.
It is not totally unfavorable to torrenting, but it has a profile called Torrent Anonymously that helps one to connect with the best server available for torrenting VPN.

256 bit AES Encryption is used by CyberGhost and it also sticks to the no-logs principle. It also has the kill switch feature.

Advantages of CyberGhost:

▪ CyberGhost allows P2P file sharing on any server. (US and Russia not included)
▪It has a profile which is specifically designed for torrenting.
▪It stores no logs.
▪It has a high working speed.

Disadvantages of CyberGhost:

▪It doesn’t unblock every streaming services.

5) PrivateVPN:

Though the PrivateVPN has relatively small network than other VPN services it has gained its place in the list of best VPNs. This is because it will give you a very good downloading speed and a very strong security.

256-bit encryption is used by PrivateVPN along with perfect forward secrecy.
A Kill switch is available in the system. A plus point is that it maintains no connection logs and traffic logs.

PrivateVPN also works well when it comes to unblocking services like iPlayer, Amazon Prime Video, and Hulu.

Advantages of PrivateVPN:

▪PrivateVPN stores zero logs and are completely uncrackable.
▪It has a really fast connection speed.
▪Easily unblocks streaming services like Netflix and Hulu.
▪It can handle up to 6 devices at once.

Disadvantages of PrivateVPN:

▪Does not have sufficient servers.
▪24 hours per day support not available.

These five VPNs are fully reliable and highly suggested by us for safe and smooth torrenting.

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Top Ten Countries with the Fastest Internet Speed




Top Ten Countries with the Fastest Internet Speed

In today’s world, a high-speed Internet has been a necessity for everyone. Be it for a recreational and cultural reason or for official use an Internet connection with a really good speed is a need of the hour.
Whether it is home or an office high-speed internet is important for millions of people around the world.
Akmai, which is a provider of one of the largest content delivery network in the world has established that most of the countries have only the most basic access of the internet connectivity. While innovation and connectivity are what the global economy is highly dependent on right now.
In the first three months of the year 2017, the average internet connectivity speed was 7.2 MB per second. Which is a 15 percent growth as compared to the same time frame in 2016, according to Akmai.

Majority of countries on the list of ‘top 10 countries with the fastest internet speed’ are from Europe. Half of the list is occupied by European countries. Only one country from the American continent is on the list while four countries are from the Asia-Pacific region.

Let us now look at the top ten countries with the fastest internet speed listed by Akmai.

1. South Korea

South Korea has occupied the top position in the Akmai’s list with the internet connection speed of 28.6 Mbps. Although South Korea has faced a 1.7% decrease in the speed from the past year, still it has managed it’s number one position in the world. Over 40% of the South Korean population has connectivity speed of over 25 Mbps. While only 12% of the global population have the access to this speed.

2. Norway

In the second position is Norway. With the average connection speed of 23.5 Mbps, Norway has experienced a 10% increase from the same time frame in 2016. Along with the second rank in the world in internet speed, this westernmost Scandinavian nation has also maintained it’s the tenth position 8n the world for its quality of life and citizenship.

3. Sweden

Sweden is a very progressive and economically healthy country and has been placed third in the list of fastest internet speed with the average connectivity speed of 22.5 Mbps. Sweden has experienced an increase of Internet speed by 9.2% from the same time frame in the previous year.
Sweden is also placed in the sixth rank in the Best Countries ranking.

4. Hong Kong

Hong Kong which is a mostly autonomous territory on China’s southeastern coast has an internet connection speed of 21.9 percent and has been placed fourth in the Akmai’s list. Hong Kong has experienced a hike of 10% in the internet connectivity speed from the last year. Hong Kong is one of the world’s most restricted countries when it comes to internet uses and media freedom. Hong Kong has been placed 20th in the world’s best Countries ranking.

5. Switzerland

Switzerland, with a 16 percent growth in internet connectivity speed from the last year now has an average connection speed of 21.7 Mbps and ranks 5th in the list.
The economy of Switzerland is dependent upon high tech manufacturing sector and highly developed financial services. This country has been placed first in the Best Countries ranking.

6. Finland

In the sixth position is Finland with an average internet connection speed of 20.5 Mbps. Finland has experienced a 15% growth from the same time frame in 2016. Because of the quality of life and entrepreneurship abilities in the citizen, Finland ranks highly in the Best Countries ranking.
Finland is also an international leader in press freedom and education.

7. Singapore

The seventh position in the Akmai’s list is held by Singapore with an average connection speed of 20.3 Mbps. Singapore is the country with the fastest year over year growth in internet speed in the Asia-Pacific region. From the same time frame in 2016 Singapore has witnessed the growth in speed by 23%.
Being one of the wealthiest countries in the world Singapore ranks 15th overall in the Best Countries ranking.

8. Japan

In the eighth position is Japan. The average connectivity speed in Japan is 20.2Mbps which is 11% higher than the last year. It ranks 5th in the Best Countries ranking and is highly known for its cultural influence, entrepreneurship and power.

9. Denmark

Denmark has an average internet connection speed of 20.1Mbps and ranks ninth in the Akmai’s list of countries with the fastest internet speed. Denmark has faced a slight decrease in the connectivity speed from the last few months of 2016 but has still managed a growth rate of 17% from the first quarter of the year.
Denmark, the country which serves as a major gateway between Northern Europe and the rest of the world has a population of over 5.6 million and is placed number 12 in the Best Countries ranking.

10. United States

The tenth position in the list is occupied by the United States of America. With 22% of year over year growth in the internet connection speed, US right now has the average internet connection speed of 18.7 Mbps. Washington, D.C has the fastest internet speed in the US.

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Artificial Intelligence and it’s Role in Education




Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Education

Artificial intelligence has entered into many areas and is slowly entering into almost every area of our lives. AI has made its way everywhere, from connecting people to online shopping and now has become a burning topic in the education sector.

Many opinions address artificial intelligence as a mode of deteriorating students while others indicate that AI will bring about a revolution in the improvement of education.

Many people may be uncomfortable with the idea of human teachers being replaced with Artificial intelligence. They might have the fear that AI tutors would wash out the humanity from the job that requires human trend, like compassion and empathy.

To think about the progress in the education system, AI seems to be a boon. It should not necessarily replace humans on the job, but in a much better way, it can go along with the human teachers to enhance the quality and quantity of the education system.

While education is a means to impose knowledge and quality among the students, AI provides all the necessary tools to make the process efficient.

An effective use of artificial intelligence can add value to the teaching experience of a teacher, as it can track down the student’s progress to bring out an optimal strategy to enhance the student’s learning process.

The use of artificial intelligence in education is no more a future tale, it has already come into practice in many places.

Teachers do not need to spend time on grading, ranking or any other similar kinds of stuff. AI equipment can handle such assignments very quickly, giving teachers more time to spend with individual students. The electronic grading system has existed since long in the form of computer tests and scantron testing.

This is a known fact that a teacher cannot be with the students all the time, which gives rise to the necessity of a tutor for some students. Some extra help with a certain subject matter is what some students need while studying. Having an AI gadget for the help is more efficient and saves more time and money than hiring a human tutor. An AI tutor can help with academic problems to help students succeed in school.

Some subjects are just difficult to understand without a visual description or a video description. Explaining the subject matter to the students in such cases becomes very difficult and time consuming for the teachers. Whereas the implication of AI gadgets can make it very simpler and interesting by showcasing the right pictures and videos at the right time in the classroom.

The advancement in artificial intelligence is making academics more personalized and convenient for students as well as for the teachers.

According to a recent study, the use of artificial intelligence in the education industry will grow by 47.5% by 2021.

Let us look at some examples of Artificial Intelligence being used in education:

Cram 101 uses AI to breakdown textbook content into a study guide.

Netex Learning has created a platform for the educators to design curriculum and content along with audios and videos.

Mastery learning includes some fundamental practices like organizing curriculum around the progress of a student, providing opportunities for corrected practice and enriching activities.

Carnegie learning’s ‘Mika’ software uses cognitive sciences and AI to provide feedback and tutoring for post-secondary education students.

I Talk 2 Learn System 16 is a system that includes one’s information about mathematical knowledge, needs, state of emotion as well as the feedback.

Let’s look at some summarised pros and cons of AI in education:


▪ Students can get additional support from AI tutors.

▪ Software can be adapted as per the student’s need.

▪ It can point out the places which need improvement.

▪ AI-driven programs can give helpful feedbacks to Teachers and students.

▪ It can change the role of teachers.

▪ It is altering how we find and interact with information.

▪ Trial and error method can be made more intimidating through AI.

▪ AI can change where students learn, who teaches them and how they acquire basic skills.

▪ AI can provide data that can change how schools find, teach and support students.

▪ Activities like grading can be automated.


▪ AI can stimulate technology addiction.

▪ High cost of power.

▪ Use of AI can increase unemployment.

▪ It will impose a lack of personal engagement.

▪ Use of technology can lower the capabilities of students.

▪ Widens the rich and poor gap: some people might not afford the gadgets.

▪ Students become less independent.

The use of Artificial intelligence in education has many more cons along with the pros, but an

intelligent use can obviously bring out positive results.

The day is not so far when AI and education will go hand in hand, creating more opportunities for success for both teachers and students.

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